Judith Kelley and Susan Coppedge, Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, September 29, 2016

Table of contents

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Part I

  1. Introduction (download chapter)
    • Scorecard Diplomacy and the Power of Reputational Concerns
    • The Argument in Brief
    • How Does It Work? Scorecard Diplomacy in Five Steps
    • Why Study Scorecard Diplomacy?
    • Outcomes, Sources, and Research Methods
    • The Plan of This Book
  2. Scorecard Diplomacy and Reputation
    • The Concept of Reputation in International Relations
    • When Do Reputational Concerns Operate? A Simple Model
    • How Does Scorecard Diplomacy Elicit Reputational Concerns?
    • Empirical Expectations
    • Summary
  3. The Case of Human Trafficking
    • The Problem of Human Trafficking
    • Step 1: Public Monitoring and Grading
    • Step 2: Ongoing Diplomacy and Practical Assistance
    • Summary
  4. How Third Parties Boost Reputational Concerns
    • How the US Funds Other Actors: “It was all about the US [efforts]!”
    • How IGOs Help Increase the Issue Salience and Build Capacity
    • How Civil Society Can Use Scorecard Diplomacy to Hold the Government Accountable
    • The Media’s Role in Eliciting Reputational Concerns
    • Summary

Part II

  1. Micro-Level Evidence of Reputational Concerns
    • The Tale of Thailand’s 2014 Drop to Tier 3
    • How to Study Reputational Concern?
    • How Do Officials React?
    • Relative Prevalence of Reactions
    • Who Reacts and Why?
    • Would Officials Still React If There Were No Tiers?
    • Face-Saving Efforts: Public Versus Private
    • Summary
  2. From Reputational Concerns to Effects on Laws, Practices, and Norms
    • Outcomes Under Study
    • Criminalization
    • Effects on Implementation, Institutions, Norms, and Practices
    • Summary
  3. When Does It Work?
    • Overview of Outcomes
    • Sensitivity
    • Exposure
    • Prioritization
    • Adding It All Up
    • Summary
  4. Country Perspectives (see online case studies)
    • Armenia: Tiers as Tools
    • Israel: Not Really About the Money
    • Zimbabwe: Low Sensitivity to Reputational Costs
    • Japan: The Importance of Consistency
    • Summary
  5. Conclusion: Reputation and Policy
    • Evidence for the Cycle of Scorecard Diplomacy
    • Possible Objections
    • When Does It Work?
    • Why Does It Work? The Reputation Argument Revisited
    • Generalizability and Sustainability
    • Insights for Policymakers
    • “Diplomatic Indigestion”: The Political Challenges of Scorecards
    • The Bottom Line

Back matter

  • Methods Appendix (download appendix)
    • Interviews
    • The Global Survey
    • Document Analysis
    • Data
    • Case Studies
  • Results Appendix
    • Chapter 3
    • Chapter 4
    • Chapter 5
    • Chapter 6
    • Chapter 7
  • References
  • Index